The legal and economic environment impose important accounting and legal obligations on all commercial and industrial enterprises, whatever their size. These obligations apply on whether they are major industrial, commercial, agricultural concerns or merely operating on an artisanal basis. These obligations also apply with equal vigour to those persons engaged in one of the liberal professions, whatever their size of operations.
They require the assistance of a reliable, experienced and independent counsellor: a Certified Public Accountant. For his clients he installs, follows up, checks, certifies, and audits the accounts of his clients. Drawing on his professional expertise he can provide advice on the price to offer, to acquire shares in a business for sale, as well as the preparation of a valuation for the transmission of a company.
It should be stressed that the Certified Public Accountant has a professional obligation to undertake, under the supervision of the relevant professional bodies, an annual programme of continuing professional education (“CPE”). These bodies ensure that the appropriate courses are made available to their members, with some of the most famous experts in the relevant fields.
- Setting up an accounting system adapted to the organisation and its requirements
- Supervision of the book – keeping operations
- Supervision of the accounting department
- Installation and supervision of the evolution of the management accounting system
- Preparation of periodic statements, balance sheets and profit and loss accounts
- Installation of the system necessary for the preparation of group accounts: consolidated
- balance sheets accompanied with the relevant consolidated profit and loss accounts
- Preparation of cash-flow statements
- Assistance in preparing accounting-based information for the Works Council
- Help and advice covering all areas of accounting
- Contractual audit of the accounts Audit and evaluation of internal control procedures
- Investigation and audit prior to an acquisition/investment
- Investigation and reporting as a prelude to introduction of a company to the stock exchange
- Legal audit of the accounts
- Valuation of companies prior to the following types of operations concerning shares: disposals, transfer of assets and liabilities from one company to another, inheritance, distributions (of property), donations
- Valuation of partnership interests
- Valuations required for various operations: notably partnership dissolution, inheritance (for tax purposes), gifts and donations